Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Ultrasound: Background Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Water Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 General Aspects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Improving Disinfection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Intensifying Electrocoagulation . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Enhancing Membrane Filtration. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Sludge Stabilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Sediment and Soil Remediation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.1 Heavy Metals Removal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Organic Decontamination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3 Ultrasonication as Assistant Process in Organic Contaminated Soil Remediation. . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Air Pollution Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Environmental Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.1 Assisting Microwave Digestion . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2 Assisting Solvent Extraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Conclusion Sonochemistry has been rapidly developing in recent years. Its potential in envi- ronmental applications is drawing more and more attention. Ultrasonic bath is widely used in analytical laboratories as an efficient method for solubilization, extraction assistance, and cleaning. Moreover, the utilization of ultrasound in environmental protection covers a broad range of applications: water treatment, soil remediation, and air cleaning. Among these environmental remediations, organic water decontamination is perhaps the most extensively researched, due to the fact that chemically ultrasonic effects work best in an aqueous medium because of the free radical formation during water sonolysis. On the other hand, the physical effects of ultrasound are recognized in membrane filtration, sediment heavy metal removal, dewatering, and air cleaning. However, it is generally accepted that ultrasonication alone cannot be a very cost-efficient technique. Ultrasound should rather be combined with other specific methods or work as an assistant for enhanced performance. Moreover, other physical impacts like heating, noise during ultrasonic process, and economic factors should also be considered, especially in practical scale-up systems. In general, as a part of a young and interesting science, the applications of ultrasound in the environmental and other green technology have a promising future.
References 19 Casadonte DJ, Flores M, Petrier C (2005) Enhancing sonochemical activity in aqueous media using power-modulated pulsed ultrasound: an initial study. Ultrason Sonochem 12:147–152 Chemat S, Lagha A, Amar HA, Chemat F (2004) Ultrasound assisted microwave digestion. Ultrason Sonochem 11:5–8 Chung HI, Kamon M (2005) Ultrasonically enhanced electrokinetic remediation for removal of Pb and phenanthrene in contaminated soils. Eng Geol 77:233–242 Collings AF, Farmer AD, Gwan PB, Sosa Pintos AP, Leo CJ (2006) Processing contaminated soils and sediments by high power ultrasound. Miner Eng 19:450–453 Dewulf J, Langenhove HV, Visscher AD, Sabbe S (2001) Ultrasonic degradation of trichloroethylene and chlorobenzene at micromolar concentration: kinetics and modeling. Ultrason Sonochem 8:143–150 Drijvers D, Baets RD, Visscher AD, Langenhove HV (1996) Sonolysis of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution: volatile organic intermediates. Ultrason Sonochem 3:83–90 Emery RJ, Papadaki M, Mantzavinor D (2003) Sonochemical degradation of phenolic pollutants in aqueous solutions. Environ Technol 24:1491–1500 Entezari MH, Petrier C, Devidal P (2003) Sonochemical degradation of phenol in water: a comparison of classical equipment with a new cylindrical reactor. Ultrason Sonochem 10:103–108 Feng D, Aldrich C (2000) Sonochemical treatment of simulated soil contaminated with diesel. Adv Environ Res 4:103–112 Flores R, Blass G, Dominguez V (2007) Soil remediation by an advanced oxidative method assisted with ultrasonic energy. J Hazard Mater 140:399–402 Gao J, Jiang R, Wang J, Kang P, Wang B, Li Y, Li K, Zhang X (2011) The investigation of sonocatlytic activity of Er 3+ :YAlO 3 /TiO 2 -ZnO composite in azo dyes degradation. Ultrason Sonochem 18:541–548 Gogate PR (2008) Treatment of wastewater streams containing phenolic compounds using hybrid techniques based on cavitation: a review of the current status and the way forward. Ultrason Sonochem 15:1–15 Goskonda S, Catallo WJ, Junk T (2002) Sonochemical degradation of aromatic organic pollutants. Waste Manag 22:351–356 He Z, Song S, Ying H, Xu L, Chen J (2007) p-Aminophenol degradation by ozonation combined with sonolysis: Operating conditions influence and mechanism. Ultrason Sonochem 14:568–574 Hoffmann TL (2000) Environmental implications of acoustic aerosol agglomeration. Ultrasonics 38:353–357 Hoffmann MR, Hua I, Höchemer R (1996) Application of ultrasonic irradiation for the degradation of chemical contaminants in water. Ultrason Sonochem 3:163–172 Hogan F, Mormede S, Clark P, Crane M (2004) Ultrasonic sludge treatment for enhanced anaerobic digestion. Water Sci Technol 50:25–32 Hua I, Pfalzer-Thompson U (2001) Ultrasonic irradiation of carbofuran: decomposition kinetics reactor characterization. Wat Res 35:1445–1452 Ince NH, Tezcanli G, Belen RK, Apikyan G (2001) Ultrasound as a catalyzer of aqueous reaction systems: the state of the art and environmental applications. Appl Catal B 29:167–176 Jiang Y, Petrier C, Waite TD (2002a) Effect of pH on the ultrasonic degradation of ionic aromatic compounds in aqueous solution. Ultrason Sonochem 9:163–168 Jiang Y, Petrier C, Waite TD (2002b) Kinetics and mechanisms of ultrasonic degradation of volatile chlorinated aromatics in aqueous solutions. Ultrason Sonochem 9:317–323 Joseph JM, Destaillats H, Hung H, Hoffmann MR (2000) The sonochemical degradation of azobenzene and related azo dyes: rate enhancement via Fenton’s reactions. J Phys Chem A 104:301–307 Joyce E, Mason TJ, Phull SS, Lorimer JP (2003) The development and evaluation of electrolysis in conjunction with power ultrasound for the disinfection of bacterial suspension. Ultrason Sonochem 10:231–234 Kidak R, Ince NH (2006) Ultrasonic destruction of phenol and substituted phenols: a review of current research. Ultrason Sonochem 13:195–19920 Ultrasound Technology in Green Chemistry Kim YU, Wang MC (2003) Effect of ultrasound on oil removal from soils. Ultrasonics 41:539–542 Kyllönen H, Pirkonen P, Hintikka V, Parvinen P, Grönroos A, Sekki H (2004) Ultrasonically aided mineral processing technique for remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. Ultrason Sonochem 11:211–216 Kyllönen HM, Pirkonen P, Nyström M (2005) Membrane filtration enhanced by ultrasound—a review. Desalination 181:319–335 Ley SV, Low CMR (1989) Ultrasound in Synthesis, Chap. 2. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Manariotis ID, Karapanagioti HK, Chrysikopoulos CV (2011) Degradation of PAHs by high frequency ultrasound. Wat Res 45:2587–2594 Mao T, Hong SY, Show KY, Tay JH, Lee DJ (2004) A comparison of ultrasound treatment on primary and secondary sludges. Water Sci Technol 50:91–97 Mason TJ (2007a) Review—developments in ultrasound—non-medical. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 93:166–175 Mason TJ (2007b) Sonochemistry and the environment—providing a ‘‘green’’ link between chemistry, physics and engineering. Ultrason Sonochem 14:476–483 Mason TJ, Joyce E, Phull SS, Lorimer JP (2003) Potential uses of ultrasound in the biological decontamination of water. Ultrason Sonochem 10:319–323 Mason TJ, Collings A, Sumel A (2004) Sonic and ultrasonic removal of chemical contaminants from soil in the laboratory and on a large scale. Ultrason Sonochem 11:205–210 Matouq MA, Al-Anber ZA (2007) The application of high frequency ultrasound waves to remove ammonia from simulated industrial wastewater. Ultrason Sonochem 14:393–397 Mecozzi M, Amici M, Pietrantonio E, Romanelli G (2002) An ultrasound assisted extraction of the available humic substance from marine sediments. Ultrason Sonochem 9:11–18 Meegoda JN, Perera R (2001) Ultrasound to decontaminate heavy metals in dredged sediments. J Hazard Mater 85:73–89 Meng Z-D, Oh W-C (2011) Sonocatalytic degradation and catalytic activities for MB solution of Fe treated fullerene/TiO 2 composite with different ultrasonic intensity. Ultrason Sonochem 18(2011):757–764 Naddeo V, Belgiorno V, Kassinos D, Mantzavinos D, Meric S (2010) Ultrasonic degradation, mineralization and detoxification of diclofenac in water: optimization of operating param- eters. Ultrason Sonochem 17:179–185 Nakui H, Okitsu K, Maeda Y, Nishimura R (2007) Hydrazine degradation by ultrasonic irradiation. J Hazard Mater 146:636–639 Newman AP, Lorimer JP, Mason TJ, Hutt KR (1997) An investigation into the ultrasonic treatment of polluted solids. Ultrason Sonochem 4:153–156 Papadaki M, Emery RJ, Abu-Hassan MA, Diaz-Bustos A, Metcalfe Mantzavinos D (2004) Sonocatalytic oxidation processes for the removal of contaminants containing aromatic rings from aqueous effluents. Sep Sci Technol 34:35–42 Pee GY (2008) Sonochemical remediation of freshwater sediments contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University Pham TD, Shrestha RA, Sillanpää M (2009a) Electrokinetic and ultrasonic treatment of kaoline contaminated. POPs Sep Sci Technol 44(10):2410–2420 Pham TD, Shrestha RA, Virkutyte J, Sillanpää M (2009b) Recent studies in environmental applications of ultrasound. J Environ Eng Sci 36:1849–1858 Riera-Franco de Sarabia E, Elvira-Segura L, Gonzalez-Gomez I, Rodriguez-Maroto JJ, Munoz- Bueno R, Dorronsoro-Areal JL (2003) Investigation of the influence of humidity on the ultrasonic agglomeration of submicron particles in diesel exhausts. Ultrasonics 41:277–281 Sáez V, Esclapez MD, Bonete P, Walton DJ, Rehorek A, Louisnard O, González-García J (2011a) Sonochemical degradation of perchloroethylene: the influence of ultrasonic variables, and the identification of products. Ultrason Sonochem 18:104–113 Sáez V, Tudela I, Esclapez MD, Bonete P, Louisnard O, González-García J (2011b) Sonochemical degradation of perchloroethylene: the influence of ultrasonic variables, and the identification of products. Chem Eng J 168:649–655References 21 Sangave PC, Pandit AB (2004) Ultrasound pre-treatment for enhanced biodegradability of the distillery wastewater. Ultrason Sonochem 11:197–203 Seungmin N, Young-Uk K, Jeehyeong K (2007) Physiochemical properties of digested sewage sludge with ultrasonic treatment. Ultrason Sonochem 14:281–285 Shrestha RA, Pham TD, Sillanpää M (2009) Effect of ultrasound on removal of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from different types of soils. J Hazard Mater 170:871–875 Shrestha RA, Pham TD, Sillanpää M (2010) Electro ultrasonic remediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. J Appl Electrochem 40(7):1407–1413 Singla R, Grieser F, Ashokkumar M (2011) The mechanism of sonochemical degradation of a cationic surfactant in aqueous solution. Ultrason Sonochem 18:484–488 Sister VG, Kirshankova EV (2005) Ultrasonic techniques in removing surfactants from effluents by electrocoagulation. Chem Petrol Eng 41:553–556 Song L, Chen C and Zhang S (2011) Sonocatalytic degradation of amaranth catalyzed by La 3+ doped TiO 2 under ultrasonic irradiation. Manuscript. Sonochemistry Research , The Sonochemistry Centre at Coventry University. http://www.sonochemistry.info/research.html. Accessed Oct 2007 Stephanis CG, Hatiris JG, Mourmouras DE (1997) The process (mechanism) of erosion of soluble brittle materials caused by cavitation. Ultrason Sonochem 4:269–271 Suslick KS (2006) Summary of sonochemistry and sonoluminescence. Suslick Research Group University of Illinois. http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/suslick/execsummsono.html/. Accessed Mar 2006 Suslick KS, Casadonte DJ, Green MLH, Thompson ME (1987) Effects of high intensity ultrasound on inorganic solids. Ultrasonics 25:56–61 Teo KC, Xu Y, Yang C (2001) Sonochemical degradation for toxic halogenated organic compounds. Ultrason Sonochem 8:241–246 Tezcanli-Guyer G, Ince NH (2003) Degradation and toxicity reduction of textile dyestuff by ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 10:235–240 Tor A, Aydin ME, Özcan S (2006) Ultrasonic solvent extraction of organochlorine pesticides from soil. Anal Chim Acta 559:173–180 Vajnhandl S, Majcen Le Marechal A (2005) Review—ultrasound in textile dyeing and the decolouration/mineralization of textile dyes. Dyes Pigment 65:89–101 Visscher AD, Langenhove HV, Eenoo PV (1997) Sonochemical degradation of ethylbenzene in aqueous solution: a product study. Ultrason Sonochem 4:145–151 Wang YQ, Pan L, Tao J, Wang T (2011) Bioactive porous titania formed by two-step chemical treatment of titanium substrates under high intensity ultrasonic field. Surf Eng 27:46–50 Wayment DG, Casadonte DJ (2002) Frequency effect on the sonochemical remediation of alachlor. Ultrason Sonochem 9:251–257 Xu H, Liao Y, Yao J (2007) Development of a novel ultrasound-assisted headspace liquid-phase microextraction and its application to the analysis of chlorophenols in real aqueous samples. J Chromatogr A 1167:1–8 Yao JJ, Gao NY, Deng Y, Ma Y, Li HJ, Xu B, Li L (2010) Sonolytic degradation of parathion and the formation of byproducts. Ultrason Sonochem 17:802–809 Yasman Y, Bulatov V, Gridin VV, Agur S, Galil N, Armon R, Schechter I (2004) A new sono- electrochemical method for enhanced detoxification of hydrophilic chloroorganic pollutants in water. Ultrason Sonochem 11:365–372 Yasman Y, Bulatov V, Rabin I, Binetti M, Schechter I (2006) Enhanced electro-catalytic degradation of chloroorganic compounds in the presence of ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 13:271–277 Yin X, Han P, Lu X, Wang Y (2004) A review on the dewaterability of bio-sludge and ultrasound pretreatment. Ultrason Sonochem 11:337–348 Zhou T, Lim T-T, Wu X (2011) Sonophotolytic degradation of azo dye reactive black 5 in an ultrasound/UV/ferric system and the r